Effect of Dual Inoculation of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungus and Cultivar Specific Bradyrhizobium Japonnicum On the Growth, Yield, Chlorophyll, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Contents of Soybean (Glycine Max (L.) Merrill.) Grown on Alluvial Soil
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dual inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (Glomus fasciculatum), and cultivar specific Bradyrhizobium japonnicum on the shoot height, dry matter, arbuscular mycorrhiza fungal colonization, chlorophyll, nutrient contents and yield of soybean variety NRC 37 (Ahilya 4). The results revealed an overall increase in shoot height, dry matter, arbuscular mycorrhiza fungal infection, chlorophyll, nitrogen and phosphorus contents and yield in the arbuscular mycorrhiza fungal mediated plants than uninoculated ones. Maximum increases were recorded in dually inoculated plants with arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AM Fungi) and cultivar specific Bradyrhizobium japonnicum (CSBJ). The combined application of AM Fungi and CSBJ were also remarkably increased the all parameters tested on soybean. The dual inoculation with microsymbionts revealed synergistic effect on soybean. The results suggest that dual inoculation of AM Fungi and CSBJ have the potential to enhance the growth, nutrient contents and yield of soybean.
Alluvial soil has the highest productivity with respect to other soils. The alluvial soil found in India, particularly in the Indo–Gangetic plain. The Gangetic plains of India are one of the most intensively cultivated plains of the world. Alluvial soil is one of the best soils, requiring the least water due to its high porosity. The consistency of alluvial soil ranges from drift sand and rich, loamy soil to silt clays. India is one of the richest countries in the world in terms of alluvial soil (nearly 43%), which covers more than 46% of its total land area (Alka et al., 2017). The morphological, physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties of alluvial soils depend greatly on the characteristics of the alluvial parent material in which the soils formed. According to several studies, organic materials improve soil chemical, physical and biological properties and thereby contribute to the maintenance of overall soil fertility and productivity (Topoliantz, et al., 2005). Soil microbial communities are extremely diverse, and the relation between their diversity and function influences soil stability, productivity and resilience; on the other hand, organic matter, water activity, soil fertility, physical and chemical properties influence microbial biomass in soils (Tomich et al., 2011). The alluvial soil is generally covered by grasses and forests, as well as a number of crops grown, such as rice, wheat, sugarcane, tobacco, maize, cotton, soybean, jute, oilseeds, fruits, vegetables, etc. The rhizosphere of plants is residence to a huge diversity of microbial species, many of which interact naturalistically with plant roots. There has been significant interest recently in exploiting their beneficial microorganisms for the purpose of more sustainable for crop production and soil health. Rhizospheric microorganisms play an important role in sustaining soil health and long-term productivity by performing major soil functions such as decomposition of organic matter, nutrient cycling and formation of soil aggregate. The recognized benefits of plants inoculation with beneficial microorganisms include reduced pathogen infection, improved fertilizers use efficiency and resistance to a biotic stress such as salinity (Yaung, et al., 2009; Kim et al., 2011; Wang et al., 2011; Prasad et al., 2019). Most of the legumes possess two types of microbial symbionts namely mycorrhizal fungi and nitrogen fixing bacteria (BNF) thereby establishing triple association, capable of supplying nitrogen (N) and Phosphorous (P) contents to the plants (Silveira and Cardoso, 2004; Prasad et al., 2005; Meghvansi et al., 2008; Meghavanshi et al., 2010; Prasad et al., 2019). Both the AM Fungi and Bradyrhizobium japonnicum (BJ) act as biofertilizers and have the unique ability to convert nutritionally important elements unavailable form in soil to available form through biological process (Hedge et al., 1999; Vessey, 2003; Meghvanshi et al., 2008; Meghavanshi et al., 2010; Prasad, 2011; Prasad, 2015; Prasad, 2017; Prasad, 2020). Mycorrhizal fungi interact with a wide range of microbes in the root rhizosphere, and in the bulk soil. These interactions may be inhibitory or stimulatory; some are clearly competitive and others may be mutualistic. Through, AM Fungi are not capable to fixing atmospheric nitrogen; they are known to increase N2 fixation and positively interact with N2 fixers (Bagyaraj and Menge, 1978; Bethlenfalvay, 1992; Barea et al., 1992; Prasad et al., 2005; Prasad et al., 2006; Meghavanshi et al., 2010 Nicholas et al., 2021). Combined inoculation of phosphate solubilising microorganisms and AMF have shown better N and P uptake and improved crop yields in nutrient deficient soils (Singh et al., 1991). Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill.) is the most widely grown worldwide as cash crop and has a high potential as a source of protein and oil, and it also enhances soil fertility for other crops by modifying the soil nitrogen budget. Soybean, commonly known as Soya, a protein rich pulse/oil crop has growing demand in Asia, especially in India because it can provide high quality protein in Indian diet. The plant has got immense medicinal value and is also used as fodder for cattle. There is need to enhance its productivity to meet the demand of growing population. The increase in soybean cultivation in India is likely to improve the rural economy and socio-economic status of the Indian farmers. Association of soybean with AM Fungi increases the uptake of nutrients particularly phosphorus (Gavito et al., 2003; Xavier and Germida, 2003; Prasad, 2017), zinc (Chen et al., 2003) and nitrogen as well as increasing crop production (Raverkar and Tilak, 2002). The association of bradyrhizobial strains with the roots of soybean plants also improves soil health and nitrogen fixation thus further increasing crop production (Jaarsveld et al., 2002; Prasad et al., 2006; Meghavanshi et al., 2010; Prasad, 2011). Recent investigations have brought to light instances where biological activities are markedly enhanced in two or three membered associations of organisms. Synergistic effects of AM Fungi and BJ have a high potential to improve the nutrients supply of soybean including phosphorus and soil quality (Tilak et al., 1995). However, published studies (Shalaby and Hann, 2000; Taiwa and Adegbite, 2001; Meghavanshi et al., 2010; Prasad, 2011; Prasad et al., 2019) indicate that a much larger genetic variability of bradyrhizobia and AMF strains exists in different cultivar regions than was assumed previously. Researches in the past few decades on various aspects of root symbionts have shown that dual interaction of AM fungi and CSBJ has improved the growth, nodulation and yield (Gill and Singh, 2008; Talaat and Abdallah, 2008; Meghavanshi, et al., 2008) and also nutrient status (Chaktabarty et al., 2007, Meghavanshi et al., 2008; Meghavanshi et al., 2010) in legumes. In the light of these views, an attempt has been made in the present study, to investigate the effect of dual inoculation of AM Fungi (Glomus fasciculatum) and CSBJ in growth, mycorrhizal colonization in root, chlorophyll, nitrogen and phosphorus contents and yield of soybean under greenhouse conditions
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//NLM//DTD JATS (Z39.96) Journal Publishing DTD v1.2d1 20170631//EN" "JATS-journalpublishing1.dtd"> <article xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" dtd-version="1.0" article-type="plant-biotechnology" lang="en"> <front> <journal-meta> <journal-id journal-id-type="publisher">JIAR</journal-id> <journal-id journal-id-type="nlm-ta">Journ of innovation in applied research</journal-id> <journal-title-group> <journal-title>Journal of Innovation in Applied Research</journal-title> <abbrev-journal-title abbrev-type="pubmed">Journ of innovation in applied research</abbrev-journal-title> </journal-title-group> <issn pub-type="ppub">2231-2196</issn> <issn pub-type="opub">0975-5241</issn> <publisher> <publisher-name>Radiance Research Academy</publisher-name> </publisher> </journal-meta> <article-meta> <article-id pub-id-type="publisher-id">47</article-id> <article-id pub-id-type="doi">10.51323/JIAR.4.1.2021.7-16</article-id> <article-id pub-id-type="doi-url"/> <article-categories> <subj-group subj-group-type="heading"> <subject>Plant Biotechnology</subject> </subj-group> </article-categories> <title-group> <article-title>Effect of Dual Inoculation of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungus and Cultivar Specific Bradyrhizobium Japonnicum On the Growth, Yield, Chlorophyll, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Contents of Soybean (Glycine Max (L.) Merrill.) Grown on Alluvial Soil </article-title> </title-group> <contrib-group> <contrib contrib-type="author"> <name> <surname>Prasad</surname> <given-names>Kamal</given-names> </name> </contrib> </contrib-group> <pub-date pub-type="ppub"> <day>1</day> <month>01</month> <year>1970</year> </pub-date> <volume>4</volume> <issue/> <fpage>7</fpage> <lpage>16</lpage> <permissions> <license license-type="open-access" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/"> <license-p>This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) Licence. You may share and adapt the material, but must give appropriate credit to the source, provide a link to the licence, and indicate if changes were made.</license-p> </license> </permissions> <abstract> <p>The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dual inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (Glomus fasciculatum), and cultivar specific Bradyrhizobium japonnicum on the shoot height, dry matter, arbuscular mycorrhiza fungal colonization, chlorophyll, nutrient contents and yield of soybean variety NRC 37 (Ahilya 4). The results revealed an overall increase in shoot height, dry matter, arbuscular mycorrhiza fungal infection, chlorophyll, nitrogen and phosphorus contents and yield in the arbuscular mycorrhiza fungal mediated plants than uninoculated ones. Maximum increases were recorded in dually inoculated plants with arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AM Fungi) and cultivar specific Bradyrhizobium japonnicum (CSBJ). The combined application of AM Fungi and CSBJ were also remarkably increased the all parameters tested on soybean. The dual inoculation with microsymbionts revealed synergistic effect on soybean. The results suggest that dual inoculation of AM Fungi and CSBJ have the potential to enhance the growth, nutrient contents and yield of soybean. </p> </abstract> <kwd-group> <kwd>Glomus fasciculatum</kwd> <kwd>Bradyrhizobium japonnicum</kwd> <kwd>Chlorophyll</kwd> <kwd>Nitrogen</kwd> <kwd>Phosphorus</kwd> <kwd>Soybean</kwd> </kwd-group> </article-meta> </front> </article>
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